List of Primitive Functions

The following is the list of primitive (built-in) functions.

Pure primitive functions

numerator
numerator (13 / 21) ---> 13
denominator
denominator (13 / 21) ---> 21
modulo
modulo (-21) 13 ---> 5
quotient
quotient (-21) 13 ---> -1
remainder
remainder (-21) 13 ---> -8
neg
neg (-89) ---> 89
abs
abs 0 ---> 0
abs 15 ---> 15
abs (-89) ---> 89
lt
0.1 < 1.0 ---> True
1.0 < 0.1 ---> False
1.0 < 1.0 ---> False
lte
0.1 <= 1.0 ---> True
1.0 <= 0.1 ---> False
1.0 <= 1.0 ---> True
gt
0.1 > 1.0 ---> False
1.0 > 0.1 ---> True
1.0 > 1.0 ---> False
gte
0.1 >= 1.0 ---> False
1.0 >= 0.1 ---> True
1.0 >= 1.0 ---> True
round
round 3.1 ---> 3
round 3.7 ---> 4
round (-2.2) ---> -2
round (-2.7) ---> -3
floor
floor 3.1 ---> 3
floor 3.7 ---> 3
floor (-2.2) ---> -3
floor (-2.7) ---> -3
ceiling
ceiling 3.1 ---> 4
ceiling 3.7 ---> 4
ceiling (-2.2) ---> -2
ceiling (-2.7) ---> -2
truncate
truncate 3.1 ---> 3
truncate 3.7 ---> 3
truncate (-2.2) ---> -2
truncate (-2.7) ---> -2
sqrt
sqrt 4 ---> 2
sqrt 4.0 ---> 2.0
sqrt (-1) ---> i
exp
exp 1 ---> e
exp 1.0 ---> 2.718281828459045
exp (-1.0) ---> 0.36787944117144233
log
log e ---> 1
log 10.0 ---> 2.302585092994046
sin
sin 0.0 ---> 0.0
cos
cos 0.0 ---> 1.0
tan
tan 0.0 ---> 0.0
asin
asin 0.0 ---> 0.0
acos
acos 1.0 ---> 0.0
atan
atan 0.0 ---> 0.0
sinh
sinh 0.0 ---> 0.0
cosh
cosh 0.0 ---> 1.0
tanh
tanh 0.0 ---> 0.0
asinh
asinh 0.0 ---> 0.0
acosh
acosh 1.0 ---> 0.0
atanh
atanh 0.0 ---> 0.0
itof
itof 4 ---> 4.0
itof (-1) ---> -1.0
rtof
rtof (3 / 2) ---> 1.5
rtof 1 ---> 1.0
ctoi
ctoi '1' ---> 49
itoc
itoc 49 ---> '1'
pack
pack [] ---> ""
pack ['E', 'g', 'i', 's', 'o', 'n'] ---> "Egison"
unpack
unpack "Egison" ---> ['E', 'g', 'i', 's', 'o', 'n']
unpack "" ---> []
unconsString
unconsString "Egison" ---> ('E', "gison")
lengthString
lengthString "" ---> 0
lengthString "Egison" ---> 6
appendString
appendString "" "" ---> ""
appendString "" "Egison" ---> "Egison"
appendString "Egison" "" ---> "Egison"
appendString "Egi" "son" ---> "Egison"
splitString
splitString "," "" ---> [""]
splitString "," "2,3,5,7,11,13"
---> ["2", "3", "5", "7", "11", "13"]
regex
regex "cde" "abcdefg" ---> [("ab", "cde", "fg")]
regex "[0-9]+" "abc123defg"
---> [("abc", "123", "defg")]
regex "a*" "" ---> [("", "", "")]
regexCg
regexCg "([0-9]+),([0-9]+)" "abc,123,45,defg"
---> [("abc,", ["123", "45"], ",defg")]
read
read "3" ---> 3
read "3.14" ---> 3.14
read "[1, 2]" ---> [1, 2]
read "\"Hello world!\"" ---> "Hello world!"
show
show 3 ---> "3"
show 3.14159 ---> "3.14159"
show [1, 2] ---> "[1, 2]"
show "Hello world!" ---> "\"Hello world!\""
isBool
isBool False ---> True
isInteger
isInteger 1 ---> True
isRational
isRational 1 ---> True
isRational (1 / 2) ---> True
isRational 3.1 ---> False
isScalar
isScalar 1 ---> True
isScalar [| 1, 2 |] ---> False
isFloat
isFloat 1.0 ---> True
isFloat 1 ---> False
isChar
isChar 'c' ---> True
isString
isString "hoge" ---> True
isCollection
isCollection [] ---> True
isCollection [1] ---> True
isHash
isHash {| |} ---> True
isHash {| (1, 2) |} ---> True
isTensor
isTensor 1 ---> False
isTensor [| 1 |] ---> True
isTensor (generateTensor (+) [1, 2]) ---> True

Primitive functions for IO operations

return

Takes a pure value and return an IO function that returns the value.

io return 1 ---> 1
openInputFile

Takes a name of a file (string) and opens the file in read-only mode. Returns a port of the opened file.

let inport := openInputFile "file.txt"
openOutputFile

Takes a name of a file (string) and opens the file in write-only (truncate) mode. Returns a port of the opened file.

let outport := openOuputFile "file.txt"
closeInputPort, closeOutputPort

Takes a port and closes it.

closeInputPort inport
closeOutputPort outport
readChar

Reads one character from the standard input and returns it.

let c := readChar ()
readLine

Reads one line from the standard input and returns it.

let line := readLine ()
writeChar

Output a given character to the standard input.

writeChar 'a'
write

Output a given string to the standard input.

write "string"
readCharFromPort

A variant of readChar that reads from the given port.

let c := readCharFromPort inport
readLineFromPort

A variant of readLine that reads from the given port.

let line := readLineFromPort inport
writeCharToPort

A variant of writeChar that writes to the given port.

writeCharToPort 'a' outport
writeToPort

A variant of write that writes to the given port.

writeToPort "string" outport
isEof

Returns True if an EOF is given in the standard input.

let b := isEof ()
flush

Flushes the standard output.

flush ()
isEofPort

Returns True if an EOF is given in the specified port.

let b := isEofPort inport
flushPort

Flushes the given port.

flushPort outport
readFile

Takes a name of a file (string) and returns its content as a string.

let lines := readFile "file.txt"
rand
rand n m returns an integer in the range \([n, m]\) (including \(m\)).
f.rand
Float version of rand.